Monday, June 26, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] Sphaerotheca pashchima • A New Species of Burrowing Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from western India

Sphaerotheca pashchima
Padhye, Dahanukar, Sulakhe, Dandekar, Limaye & Jamdade, 2017  

Sphaerotheca pashchima, a new species of burrowing frog, is described from western India. It can be diagnosed from all its congeners based on a combination of characters including interorbital width less than upper eyelid width, snout to nostril distance less than half of eye diameter, nostril nearer to snout than to eye, internarial distance greater than inter orbital distance, snout rounded, dorsum rough and warty, finger 2 length equal to or less than finger 4 length, finger 1 less finger 3 length, outer metatarsal tubercle absent, tibio tarsal tubercle absent, length of inner metatarsal tubercle more than three times the inner toe length and reduced webbing. We also provide 16S rRNA gene sequence for S. pashchima sp. nov. and show that it is genetically distinct from species of Sphaerotheca for which genetic data is available.

Keywords: Amphibia, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy.



Image 2. Sphaerotheca pashchima sp. nov.  in life.
(a) holotype (BNHS 6000, male, 41.0mm SUL) from Ambodi Village, (b) from Kutwalwadi (specimen not collected), (c) from Mayureshwar Wildlife Sanctuary (specimen not collected), and (d) from Akole near Sangamner (BNHS 6015, male, 40.8mm SUL).

Sphaerotheca pashchima sp. nov.
 Suggested common name: Western Burrowing Frog

Holotype: BNHS 6000, male (41.0mm SUL),, India: Maharashtra: Saswad-Waghapur Road, Ambodi Village (18.3500N, 74.0410E, 747m), coll. S. Sulakhe et al.

Diagnosis: Sphaerotheca pashchima sp. nov. differs from all other congeners based on the following combination of characters: interorbital width less than upper eyelid width; snout to nostril distance less than half of eye diameter; nostril nearer to snout than to eye; internarial distance greater than inter orbital distance; snout rounded; dorsum rough and warty; finger 2 length equal to or less than finger 4 length; finger 1 less finger 3 length; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; tibio tarsal tubercle absent; length of inner metatarsal tubercle more than three times the inner toe length; and webbing formula I1--2-II1-3-III2-3½IV3½-2+V.

Etymology: Pashchim’ (Sanskrit), means ‘west’ and is used to signify the distribution of the species in western India. Name is noun in apposition.

Habitat and ecology: S. pashchima is found widely distributed in western India. It inhabits variety of habitats from high to low rainfall areas. In high rainfall areas it is sympatric to S. dobsonii. It is also found in semi arid and arid parts of Deccan plateau. In semi arid and arid areas it breeds in temporary rain water pools immediately after the first flash rains. Adults gather in large numbers at potential breeding habitats. Tadpoles are bottom dwelling and frequently come to the surface of water for breathing. Juveniles are cannibalistic; a larger one devours the smaller one of its own species.

Distribution: Western parts of peninsular India from the states Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka (Image 3).

Image 3. Distribution of Sphaerotheca paschima sp. nov. Western Ghats mountafn ranges are shown fn green.
Dahanukar et al. (2017) provide a review of the species under the genus Sphaerotheca and identify three morphological groups for eight valid species in the genus. They also assign genetic barcode for S. breviceps, S. dobsonii and S. pluvialis so as to aid future studies in unambiguous identification of these three species. We describe S. pashchima sp. nov. from the S. breviceps group, which is morphologically distinct from all its congeners. We also provide genetic barcode as identity of the new species.
It is essential to note that earlier reports of S. breviceps by Padhye & Ghate (2002), Padhye et al. (2002), Dharne et al. (2004), Dahanukar & Padhye (2005), and Padhye & Ghate (2012) should be attributed to S. pashchima sp. nov. based on current study.
Dahanukar et al. (2017) mention that the sequence GU191122 for specimen identity as S. rolandae from Rajasthan is not of good quality and with several gaps; however, partial sequence comparison suggests that the species is misidentified and is likely to be S. pashchima sp. nov. indicating its presence in Rajastan.

Anand Padhye, Neelesh Dahanukar, Shauri Sulakhe, Nikhil Dandekar, Sunil Limaye and Kirti Jamdade. 2017. Sphaerotheca pashchima, A New Species of Burrowing Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from western India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 9(6); 10286–10296. DOI: 10.11609/jott.2877.9.6.10286-10296 


[Botany • 2017] Sedum danjoense • A New Species of Succulent Plants (Crassulaceae) from the Danjo Islands in Japan

Sedum danjoense 
Takuro Ito, H. Nakanishi & G. Kokub. 


We compared Sedum formosanum with related species using morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analysis of nrITS sequences. Morphological comparisons revealed that the plants historically treated as S. formosanum in the Danjo Islands of Japan had 4-merous flower; 8 stamens; narrow triangular sepals of equal size; horizontal carpels when matured; and an irregular branching form. These traits differed from those of S. formosanum in other regions, which has 5-merous flowers; 10 stamens, thick spatulate sepals of unequal size; erect carpels when matured; and a trichotomous branching form. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that plants known as S. formosanum in the Danjo Islands were sister group to S. tetractinum, which are endemic to China and belong to a different clade than S. formosanum, which are found in other regions. Based on the present morphological comparisons and phylogenetical analyses, we describe plants from the Danjo Islands as a new speciesSedum danjoense, which is distinct from S. formosanum.

Keywords: East Asia, ITS, Phylogeny, Sedum formosanum, Succulent, Eudicots

FIGURE 3. Sedum danjoense Takuro Ito, H. Nakanishi & G. Kokub.
 A. Habitat and habit. B. Inflorescence. C. Adaxial surface. D. Abaxial surface. E. Flower. F. Sepals. G. Carpels. H. Branching.

Scale bars are 25 mm for A, 5 mm for B–H [A. Wild individuals in Yorishima island photo by Yoshiro Chichibu in May 1989; B. Cultivated in Nagasaki Subtropical Botanical Garden photo by Kiyotaka Minota in Sep. 2011; C-H. Takuro Ito 3658 in Oct. 2016] 

Sedum danjoense Takuro Ito, H. Nakanishi & G. Kokub., sp. nov.  
 Type:— JAPAN. The Kyusyu, the Danjo Islands, Yorishima Island, 25 October 2016 (cultivated in Nagasaki Subtropical Botanical Garden after collecting its natural habit in 1989), Takuro Ito 3658. (holotype TNS!).

Etymology:— The epithet refers to the Japanese name of type locality of the Danjo Islands.
Japanese common name:—Danjo-mannen-gusa (nov.).

 Distribution and habitat:— Endemic to the Danjo Islands (Kyusyu), on sunny, coastal rocky slopes exposed to direct sunlight; in typical coastal vegetation within “a community of Miscanthus condensatus Hackel (1899: 639)– Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai (1920: 150)” similar to those in other regions of Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. Itow & Nakanishi (1990) mentioned that this species was distributed throughout the Danjo Islands (as S. formosanum), and thus further field surveys are required on the islands.

Takuro Ito, Hiroki Nakanishi, Yoshiro Chichibu, Kiyotaka Minoda and Goro Kokubugata. 2017. Sedum danjoense (Crassulaceae), A New Species of Succulent Plants from the Danjo Islands in Japan. Phytotaxa. 309(1); 23–34. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.309.1.2

[Ornithology • 2017] Zosterops White-eyes in Continental South-East Asia. 1: Proposed Refinements to the Regional Definition of Oriental White-eye Z. palpebrosus

Zosterops erwini  (Chasen, 1934)

Grounds exist for accepting that the previously unrecognised paratypes of Zosterops (palpebrosusauriventer Hume in Hume & Davison, 1878, from a population inhabiting the coastal lowlands of the Malacca Straits, are all still held by the Natural History Museum, Tring, and that the overall type series is a taxonomic composite. Comparative morphology and a re-reading of original collecting details combine to revise Hume’s identifcation of his paratypes. Their population is re-named and its geographical range redefned, with suggested outcomes for species limits. The term ‘continental’ here includes the islands of South-East Asian shelf waters, i.e., as far the Greater Sundas and their satellites.

Figure 1. Zosterops (palpebrosus) ‘auriventer’ (= erwini), mangrove zone, Khlong Thom district, Krabi Province, peninsular Thailand, i.e., at the proven end-point of erwini range closest to the type locality of nominate auriventer 
(© P. D. Round / Wetlands Trust)

Zosterops palpebrosus erwini Chasen, 1934: holotype NHMUK 1947.60.60, adult male (label data), collected by P. M. de Fontaine on Panjang Island (02° 45’N, 108° 54’E), South Natuna archipelago, South China Sea, on 19 August 1931. Described on pages 96–97 of Chasen, F. N. 1934. Nine new races of Natuna birds. Bull. Rafes Mus. 9: 92–97. 


 Moyle et al. (2009) published genetic evidence of one or more species boundaries between the Indian Subcontinent and Lesser Sundas range extremes of conventionally identifed Z. palpebrosus. One proposal draws on morphology and habitat-based arguments for uncoupling the name auriventer from supposed Oriental White-eyes inhabiting the Malacca Straits and neighbouring coasts, and the consequent retraction of the re-named population’s mainland range southward. This opens a large, terrestrial range gap between inner tropical, mangrove-haunting erwini and williamsoni, and northern, mainly upland forest siamensis. Atention is also drawn to likely habitat-based parapatry between mainly coastal erwini and inland forest buxtoni ‘subspecies’ in eastern Sumatra, and to previously undescribed morphological diferences between erwini and the neighbouring coastal whiteeye population of western mainland Borneo.

 These potential taxonomic boundaries all require more data from the feld, particularly on vocalisations, especially song; also sampling for more phylogenetic analysis—to be undertaken before degradation of habitats that could be crucial to understanding fnally eliminates such opportunities. It is proposed that sampling be broad enough to address at least: (1) the level of relatedness of coastal erwini and williamsoni, and of this pair with siamensis, the nearest neighbouring mainland taxon currently accepted as part of true western and northern continental Z. palpebrosus, against the proposition that they are not conspecifc; (2) relatedness of erwini and buxtoni on Sumatra, against the proposition that they are not conspecifc; and (3) status of the coastal Bornean population, relative to both erwini and buxtoni.

D. R. Wells. 2017. Zosterops White-eyes in Continental South-East Asia. 1: Proposed Refinements to the Regional Definition of Oriental White-eye Z. palpebrosus.
 Bull. B.O.C. 137(2); 100-109. 

[Entomology • 2017] New Species in the Treehopper Genus Bocydium Latreille, with Description of Nymphal Stages and Observations on their Natural History

Bocydium mae Flórez-V, 2017


Six new species of Bocydium Latreille are described, and life history notes are provided based on field data from the Central and Western Cordilleras of the Colombian Andes. Information on host plants, treehopper-ant mutualisms, and behavior of adults and nymphs are provided for most newly discovered species (B. bilobum Flórez-V sp. nov.B. hadronotum Flórez-V sp. nov.B. mae Flórez-V sp. nov.B. sakakibarai Flórez-V sp. nov.B. sanmiguelense Flórez-V sp. nov., and B. tatamaense Flórez-V sp. nov.) in addition to two previously known species of Bocydium. A key to species of the genus is presented, along with photographs of primary type specimens for all species described by Dr. Albino M. Sakakibara. A nomenclatural change is proposed for B. cubitale Richter, 1954 syn. nov., herein considered junior synonym of B. bullife-rum Goding, 1930.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Stegaspidini, taxonomy, biology, host plant

nymphs of Bocydium mae sp. nov. 
(Photo by Kenji Nishida)

 Camilo Flórez-V and Olivia Evangelista. 2017. New Species in the Treehopper Genus Bocydium Latreille, with Description of Nymphal Stages and Observations on their Natural History. Zootaxa.  4281(1) ; 22–57. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4281.1.4

[Mammalogy • 2017] Caribbean Myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), with Description of A New Species, Myotis attenboroughi, from Trinidad and Tobago

Myotis attenboroughi
Moratelli, Wilson, Novaes, Helgen & Gutiérrez, 2017 

We describe a new species of Myotis (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) from the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Tobago Island. The new species (Myotis attenboroughi sp. nov.) can be distinguished from all other Neotropical congeners by cranial features and cytochrome-b gene sequences. Myotis attenboroughi sp. nov. is allied morphologically with species in the albescens group (like M. nigricans), and is sister to a clade including M. cf. handleyi, M. nesopolus, and 3 possibly undescribed species from Central and South America. A review of Myotis collections from the Caribbean confirms M. nyctor for Barbados and Grenada; M. dominicensis for Dominica and Guadeloupe; M. martiniquensis for Martinique; M. pilosatibialis and M. riparius for Trinidad; and M. attenboroughi for Tobago. The occurrence of M. attenboroughi on Trinidad is still an open question.

Keywords: Caribbean, Lesser Antilles, Myotis attenboroughi, Myotis nigricans, Neotropics, Sir David Attenborough’s Myotis

The newly described, Sir David Attenborough's Myotis —Myotis attenboroughi—(Moratelli et al.,2017), represents the first, and only known, endemic mammalian species on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Molecular, morphological and morphometric analyses conducted by Moratelli et al., now confirms that the Black Myotis on Tobago (see photo), traditionally assigned, Myotis nigricans, is actually a previously unknown species now named, Myotis attenboroughi, in honour of famed naturalist, Sir David Attenborough. This tiny bat, the Sir David Attenborough's Myotis, Trinidad and Tobago's only known endemic mammalian species, consumes moths and other small flying insects. This species is known to roost in caves, tree-hollows, and if neither of these is available, the attics of buildings.
 Photo: Geoffrey Gomes (Trinibats) 

Why isn't the bat named for Tobago? In this particular case, this new designation is a result of a species split (simply put). In zoological nomenclature, this occurs when new findings warrant a species being split into subspecies or new species, which is the case here. If this specimen described for Tobago was indeed an originally described, nominal species, as distinct from a species or subspecies subsequently distinguished from it, then it may be named Tobagoi or Trinitatis (as some local bats are named), or something along those lines.
Photo: Steve Parker


Ricardo Moratelli, Don E. Wilson, Roberto L. M. Novaes, Kristofer M. Helgen and Eliécer E. Gutiérrez. 2017. Caribbean Myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), with Description of A New Species from Trinidad and Tobago.
 J Mammal. gyx062.  DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyx062 
T&T goes batty over first endemic mammalian species | Loop News

Describimos una nueva especie de Myotis (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) de la República de Trinidad y Tobago, isla de Tobago. La nueva especie (Myotis attenboroughi sp. nov.) se distingue de otros congéneres Neotropicales en sus rasgos craneanos y secuencias del gen citocromo b. Myotis attenboroughi sp. nov. es morfológicamente similar a especies del grupo albescens (tal como M. nigricans) y es hermana de un clado que incluye a M. cf. handleyi, M. nesopolus, y tres especies, posiblemente no descritas, de Centro y Sud América. Una revisión de las series de Myotis del Caribe confirma a M. nyctor para Barbados y Granada; M. dominicensis para Dominica y Guadalupe; M. martiniquensis para Martinica; M. pilosatibialis y M. riparius para Trinidad; y M. attenboroughi para Tobago. La presencia de M. attenboroughi en Trinidad sigue siendo hoy un enigma.

Singular bat Zoologists have named a newly discovered species of bat after the veteran British naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough. Scientists analysed museum records of specimens of 377 Caribbean bats, and found that a species apparently endemic to the island of Tobago is morphologically and genetically different from the mainland species (Myotis nigricans) to which it had been assigned taxonomically for almost a century. Taxonomist Ricardo Moratelli and his team named the bat (pictured) Myotis attenboroughi in honour of the naturalist, who has inspired generations of wildlife biologists. The findings were published on 7 June (R. Moratelli et al. J. Mammal.; 2017).


[Entomology • 2017] Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Protorhoe Herbulot, 1951 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae), New Taxonomic Changes and Description of Two New Species; Protorhoe drechseli & P. beshkovi

Protorhoe drechseli
 Rajaei, Stadie & Hausmann, 2017 


We highlight the diagnostic characters of the genus Protorhoe Herbulot, 1951. Wing pattern and genitalia of all known Protorhoe species are illustrated and their distribution data are shown on maps. Cidaria avetianae Vardikian, 1974 is synonymized with P. unicata (Guenée, 1858) (syn. n.), Cidaria unicata centralisata Staudinger, 1892 is raised from subspecies (of P. unicata) to species rank (stat. n.), and P. tangaba (Wiltshire, 1952) is transferred from Catarhoe to the genus Protorhoe (comb. n.). Two species are described as new to the science from Turkey: Protorhoe drechseli sp. n. and Protorhoe beshkovi sp. n. As result, the number of species in the genus Protorhoe was raised from six to nine.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Catarhoe, host plant, Iran, Middle East, new combination, new species, new synonymy, Protorhoe, Turkey

 Hossein Rajaei, Dirk Stadie and Axel Hausmann. 2017. Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Protorhoe Herbulot, 1951 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae), New Taxonomic Changes and Description of Two New Species.
4282(2); 269–291.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4282.2.3

Sunday, June 25, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Trichomycterus ytororo • Living in the Waterfalls: A New Species of Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from Tabay Stream, Misiones, Argentina

Trichomycterus ytororo
Terán, Ferrer, Benitez, Alonso, Aguilera & Mirande, 2017

live specimens (A). holotype CI–FML 7241, 94.2 mm. (B–D). paratype CI–FML 7241, 60.9 mm SL.
Argentina, Misiones, Jardín América, Tabay stream, Paraná River basin. 


A new species assigned to the genus Trichomycterus from the area of the waterfalls of Tabay stream, Paraná River basin, Misiones, Argentina, is described. Trichomycterus ytororo sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the genus by the presence of 31–35 dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays and the combination of some external characters such as: coloration, number of pectoral–fin rays and pores of the laterosensory canals. The new taxon belongs to a presumably monophyletic group of species composed of T. crassicaudatus, T. igobi, and T. stawiarski based on the presence of 24 or more thickly ossified and rigid procurrent caudal-fin rays with a slender distal tip extending along the tips of at least ten neural spines.

Fig 4. Geographic distribution of the species assigned to the Trichomycterus stawiarski group: T. crassicaudatus (green symbols), T. igobi (white symbols), T. stawiarski (yellow symbols) and T. ytororo (red symbol). Stars represent the type localities. Some triangles symbols represent more than one collection locality. Numbers 1, 2, 3 indicate the Paraguay, Paraná and Iguazú Rivers, respectively.

Fig 5. Type locality of Trichomycterus ytororo; Tabay waterfalls, Tabay stream, Jardín América, Misiones, Argentina.

Ecological notes: The Tabay stream basin through 192 km from its headwaters at Campo Viera to its mouth on the Paraná River, at Jardín América (Fig 4). The stream bed is mainly composed of basaltic bedrock, in which sections with waterfalls and pools alternates all along its run. At the type locality (Tabay waterfall; Fig 5), the stream is surrounded by remnants of the Paranaense riparian forest, with its left margin degraded due to a camping site. This waterfall consists of three consecutive falls, the main one is 10m high and 20–50m wide, which drains into a narrow gorge. All specimens of Trichomycterus ytororo were captured above the waterfalls at shallow areas (about 1 meter depth or less) or in rapids witha predominantly rocky bottom and strong current. Trichomycterus davisi was the single congener recorded at the type locality, which was not collected syntopically with T. ytororo.

 Distribution: Trichomycterus ytororo is so far known only from its type locality, the Tabay waterfalls in the Tabay stream (Fig 5), a tributary of the left bank of the Paraná River, province of Misiones, northeast of Argentina (Fig 4).

Etymology: The specific epithet ytororo derived from the indigenous language Guaraní (“ytororõ”) which means “waterfall” in reference to the habitat occupied by the new species. A noun in apposition.

Guillermo Enrique Terán, Juliano Ferrer, Mauricio Benitez, Felipe Alonso, Gastón Aguilera and Juan Marcos Mirande. 2017. Living in the Waterfalls: A New Species of Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from Tabay Stream, Misiones, Argentina.
 PLoS ONE. 12(6); e0179594.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179594

[Herpetology • 2017] Isthmura corrugata • A New Species of Isthmura (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the Montane Cloud Forest of Central Veracruz, Mexico

Isthmura corrugata
Comte, Pineda, Rovito & Manzano, 2017

DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4277.4.7 


We describe a new plethodontid salamander species of the genus Isthmura, known only from one locality in the mountainous region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Like its congeners, Isthmura corrugata sp. nov. has a large and robust body, but it is easily distinguished from the other species in the genus by the absence of any spot or mark on the dorsum (except by dull reddish brown coloration on eyelids) and by extremely well-marked costal grooves separated by very pronounced costal folds. Based on an mtDNA phylogeny, the new species is most closely related to the geographically distant I. boneti and I. maxima but occurs very near I. naucampatepetl and I. gigantea on the eastern slope of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz. The region where I. corrugata occurs contains a high number of plethodontid salamander species and is threatened by human activity.

Keywords: Amphibia, Isthmura corrugata sp. nov., morphology, Neotropics, phylogeny, salamander

FIGURE 2. Holotype of Isthmura corrugata.
A) Lateral and B) Ventral view. C) Coloration and form of costal grooves. D) Left hand (up) and left foot (down). E) Details of the head. F) Dorsal view.
Photographs by A. Sandoval-Comte.

Isthmura corrugata sp. nov. 
Suggested English name: Corrugated Salamander.
Suggested Spanish name: Salamandra corrugada.

Etymology. The specific epithet makes reference to the extremely pronounced grooves along the body, giving these salamanders a corrugated appearance

Adriana Sandoval Comte, Eduardo Pineda, Sean M. Rovito and Ricardo Luria Manzano. 2017. A New Species of Isthmura (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the Montane Cloud Forest of Central Veracruz, Mexico. Zootaxa. 4277(4); 573–582. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4277.4.7


[Botany • 2017] Delimitation of the Series Laurifoliae in the Genus Passiflora (Passifloraceae)

Flowers of some Passiflora series Laurifoliae.


Within the huge diversity of genus Passiflora, series Laurifoliae constitutes a strikingly uniform group, widely distributed in neotropical rain forests, at low to moderate elevations. Given its morphological and ecological unity, Killip mentionned it as an «exceedingly difficult» group. The lack of clear morphological criteria has not helped in delimiting it, and the confusion has grown with the addition of new species and criteria. As a preliminary step in the study of diversity within series Laurifoliae, we re-examine its morphological delimitation, assessing how its current 29 species (including the highly similar P. pachyantha and P. killipiana) conform to 20 criteria from different authors. Three criteria (indumentum on vegetative parts, stipule glands, membranous limen) appear to be irrelevant, because they are either too variable or rarely recorded in the species descriptions. Using the 17 remaining ones, 24 typical species show very limited variations, five of them differing by only one criterion. Among them, we retain terete to angular stem, setaceous or linear stipules soon deciduous, petiolar glands in one pair, leaves oblong, neither peltate nor lobate, three glandular bract over 1 cm long and free, flowers pendent, with two campanulate outer series of filaments (most other series much reduced or aborted). Five species, P. guazumaefolia, P. kikiana, P. odontophylla, P. ischnoclada, and P. maliformis, differ by three to nine traits, not found in the typical representatives of the series, so they can be excluded from it. Passiflora kikiana should be classified into series Kermesinae. For the four other ones, a satisfactory solution implies a more global study, involving other series.

Keywords: Violales, Malpighiales, Passifloraceae, Passiflora, Eudicots

Figure 1. Flowers of the series Laurifoliae.
A: Passiflora acuminata (photo: J. B. Fernandes da Silva); B: P. ambigua (photo: R. Aguilar); C: P. venusta (photo: D. Scherberich); D: P. cerasina (photo: M. Vecchia); E: P. crenata (photo: M. Rome); F: P. fissurosa (photo: M. de Souza); G: P. laurifolia (photo: F. Booms); H: P. nigradenia (photo: D. Scherberich); I: P. nitida (photo: M. Rome); J: P. popenovii (photo: G. Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge) ; K: P. rufostipulata (photo: C. Houel); L: P. gabrielliana (photo: M. Rome) : M: P. ischnoclada (photo: C. Houel); N: P. kikiana in Cervi (2010); O: P. guazumaefolia (photo: J. Ocampo); P: P. odontophylla (flower of the type specimen). 

Several diagnostic characters used by Killip and Cervi (indumenta on vegetative organs, glandular stipules, bracts rounded at apex (with reservation), limen presence and shape), appear to be variable in the series, so they can still be used to differentiate species of the series, not to delimit the series. As a variable quantitative trait, leaf width is also questionable. The criteria “campanulate calyx tube” and “tubular or filamented operculum” are characters shared by all species of supersection Laurifolia. We can also exclude them from the definition of series Laurifoliae. These modifications allow restoring a homogeneous series Laurifoliae, which could be defined as follows:

 Series Laurifoliae — Plants glabrous to pubescent. Stems terete to angular, wingless, sometimes corky on old parts. Stipules linear to setaceous, early deciduous. Petiole with two discoid to oblong sessile glands (except in populations of P. popenovii). Leaves unlobate, oblong-lanceolate, entire to glandular-serrulate, not peltate. Bracts three, in involucre, free at base, more than 1 cm long and glandular. Flowers pendent. Outer series of filaments two, campanulate (most other series much reduced or aborted).

 Currently, series Laurifoliae includes 24 species corresponding to the above criteria: P. acuminata, P. ambigua, P. capparidifolia, P. cerasina, P. chaparensis, P. crenata, P. fernandezii, P. fissurosa, P. gabrielliana, P. gleasonii, P. kapiriensis, P. killipiana, P. laurifolia, P. metae (when type effectively deposited), P. nigradenia, P. nitida, P. pachyantha, P. pergrandis, P. phellos, P. popenovii, P. riparia, P. rufostipulata, P. tolimana, and P. venusta.

Maxime Rome and Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge. 2017. Delimitation of the Series Laurifoliae in the Genus Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Phytotaxa. 309(3); 245–252.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.309.3.5

Friday, June 23, 2017

[Crustacea • 2017] Himalayapotamon garhwalense • A New Species of Freshwater Crab of the Genus Himalayapotamon Pretzmann, 1966 (Decapoda, Brachyura: Potamidae) from Uttarakhand, northern India

Himalayapotamon garhwalense
Pati & Singh, 2017

 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4237.1.11


A new species of potamid freshwater crab, Himalayapotamon garhwalense n. sp., is described from a stream near Khanda in Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India. The new species is differentiated from all congeners by a suite of carapace and gonopod features, including the short, stout and conical G1 terminal joint with gradually tapered distal portion. Himalayapotamon Pretzmann, 1966, is now represented by 11 species including H. garhwalense n. sp. An identification key to the species in the genus is provided.

Keywords: Crustacea, taxonomy, new species, identification key, India

Himalayapotamon garhwalense n. sp., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C. 1178). A, dorsal view; B, frontal view; C, ventral view. Scale bar = 10 mm. 

Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896
Subfamily Potaminae Ortmann, 1896
Himalayapotamon Pretzmann, 1966
Himalayapotamon garhwalense n. sp.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to Garhwal, an administrative division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, where the crab seems to be endemic

 S. K. Pati and Singh, S., 2017, A New Species of Freshwater Crab of the Genus Himalayapotamon Pretzmann, 1966 (Decapoda, Brachyura: Potamidae: Potaminae) from Uttarakhand, northern India. Zootaxa. 4237(1); 191-200.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4237.1.11

[Herpetology • 2017] MtDNA Differentiation and Taxonomy of Central Asian Racerunners of Eremias multiocellata-E. przewalskii Species Complex (Squamata, Lacertidae)

Eremias dzungarica 
Orlova, Poyarkov, Chirikova, Nazarov, Munkhbayar, Munkhbayar & Terbish, 2017

Dzungarian Racerunner || DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4282.1.1 


We provide an integrative analysis of the diversity of the E. multiocellataE. przewalskii species complex in Central and Middle Asia using morphological and molecular (COI DNA-barcoding) data. We report preliminary data on mtDNA variation within this group and clarify the taxonomic status and distribution of the members of the species complex. We also provide a description of a new Eremias species from Eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia, where it occurs in sympatry with E. multiocellata sensu stricto, from which it can be clearly differentiated using both morphological and molecular characters. The new species, described as Eremias dzungarica sp. nov., is assigned to the subgenus Pareremias on the basis of the following features: subocular not reaching mouth edge; one frontonasal; two supraoculars; the row of small granular scales between supraoculars and frontal with frontoparietals absent; distance between the femoral pore rows being wide; femoral pore rows not reaching knee-joint; coloration pattern with light colored ocelli with black edging. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners on the basis of the following morphological attributes: a medium-sized lacertid lizard, maximum snout-vent length (SVL) = 64.5 mm, tail being ca. 1.5 times longer than body length (SVL), hindlimbs relatively long (hindlimb length to SVL ratio 0.46); subocular scale not reaching mouth edge, in touch with 6–8 supralabials; males with bright coloration consisting of 2–3 dorsolateral rows of light-colored ocelli with thick black edging; the ventral row of ocelli in life is greenish to bluish; dorsal pattern consisting of black irregular blotches along the middorsal line. We also report on the high genetic and morphological diversity of E. multiocellata in Mongolia and China, synonymize E. m. bannikowi with the nominative form E. m. multiocellata, discuss variation within E. przewalskii, synonymize E. p. tuvensis with the nominative form E. przewalskii, provide new data on E. cf. reticulata and E. m. tsaganbogdensis, confirm validity and clarify distribution ranges of E. stummeri, E. szczerbaki and E. yarkandensis and discuss further progress on taxonomic studies of the E. multiocellataE. przewalskii species complex.

Keywords: Reptilia, Eremias dzungarica sp. nov., Biogeography, Sauria, Multi-ocellated Racerunner, Gobi Racerunner, Middle Asia, Central Asia, morphology, mitochondrial DNA, COI, phylogeography, distribution

FIGURE 6. Holotype of Eremias dzungarica sp. nov. (ZMMU R-12845) in life in lateral view. 

Eremias dzungarica

Etymology. The specific name “dzungarica” is a Latin toponymic adjective in the nominative singular (feminine gender), referring to the distribution of the new species covering the area of Dzungaria, now in easternmost Kazakhstan, northern part of Chinese Xinjiang and the westernmost part of Mongolia (Dzungarian Gobi).

Reccomended vernacular name. We recommend the following common name in English: Dzungarian Racerunner. Recommended common name in Mongolian: Züüngaryn gürvel; in Russian: Dzhungarskaya yaschurka.

Valentina F. Orlova, Nikolay A. Jr. Poyarkov, Maritina A. Chirikova, Roman A. Nazarov, Munkhbaatar Munkhbayar, Khorlooghiyn Munkhbayar and Khayankhyarvagijn Terbish. 2017. MtDNA Differentiation and Taxonomy of Central Asian Racerunners of Eremias multiocellata-E. przewalskii Species Complex (Squamata, Lacertidae).
 Zootaxa. 4282(1); 1-42. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4282.1.1

[Herpetology • 2017] Description of Four New Species of Burrowing Frogs in the Fejervarya rufescens complex (Dicroglossidae) with Notes on Morphological Affinities of Fejervarya Species in the Western Ghats

Fejervarya kadarFejervarya manoharani,
Fejervarya neilcoxi Fejervarya cepfi

Garg & Biju, 2017


The Rufescent Burrowing Frog, Fejervarya rufescens, is thought to have a wide distribution across the Western Ghats in Peninsular India. This locally abundant but secretive species has a short breeding period, making it a challenging subject for field studies. We sampled 16 populations of frogs morphologically similar to F. rufescens in order to understand the variation among populations found across the Western Ghats. Our study shows significant morphological and genetic differences among the sampled populations, suggesting that F. ‘rufescens’ is a complex of several undescribed species. Using evidence from morphology and genetics, we confirm the presence of five distinct species in this group and formally describe four as new. The new species were delineated using a phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes (16S, COI and Cytb) and a haplotype network of a nuclear gene (Rag1). Hereafter, the distribution of F. rufescens is restricted to the state of Karnataka and adjoining regions of northern Kerala. Three new species (Fejervarya kadar sp. nov., Fejervarya manoharani sp. nov. and Fejervarya neilcoxi sp. nov.) are from regions south of Palghat gap in the state of Kerala, and one (Fejervarya cepfi sp. nov.) from the northern Western Ghats state of Maharashtra. These findings indicate that Fejervarya frogs of the Western Ghats are more diverse than currently known. Our results will also have implications on the conservation status of F. rufescens, which was previously categorized as Least Concern based on its presumed wide geographical distribution. Furthermore, in order to facilitate a better taxonomic understanding of this region’s fejervaryan frogs, we divide all the known Fejarvarya species of the Western Ghats into four major groups—Fejervarya nilagirica group, Fejervarya rufescens group, Fejervarya sahyadris group and Fejervarya syhadrensis group, based on their morphological affinities.

Keywords: Amphibians, bioacoustics, multi-gene DNA barcoding, India, integrative taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, new species, species diversity, Western Ghats

Taxonomic accounts and description of new species 

Fejervarya rufescens (Jerdon, 1853) 
Rufescent Burrowing Frog (Daniels 2005)

Original name: Pyxicephalus rufescens Jerdon, 1853. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 22: 522–534. 

Fejervarya kadar sp. nov. 
Kadar Burrowing Frog

Etymology. The species is named after the Kadar tribe of Kerala, who live in the Vazhachal forest where the type series was collected. We enjoyed their support and hospitality during amphibian field studies in the region. The specific epithet kadar is treated as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name. 

Fejervarya manoharani sp. nov. 
Manoharan’s Burrowing Frog 
Etymology: This species is named for Mr TM Manoharan, who severed as the Head of Kerala Forest Department for over a decade, for providing encouragement as well as personal financial support to SDB during the initial phases of his scientific career. The species epithet manoharani is treated as a noun in the genitive case. 

Fejervarya neilcoxi sp. nov. 
Neil Cox’s Burrowing Frog

Etymology: This species is named for Dr Neil Cox, Manager of the IUCN-Conservation International Biodiversity Assessment Unit. Neil has been associated with the IUCN Red List in a variety of capacities including species assessment and management, and the new species is named particularly in appreciation of his contribution towards the Global Amphibian Assessment. The species epithet neilcoxi is treated as a noun in the genitive case.

Fejervarya cepfi sp. nov. 
CEPF Burrowing Frog

Etymology. The species is named after the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) for its effort to protect global biodiversity hotspots by providing grants in general, and specifically for a grant supporting research and conservation planning in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot through the Project Western Ghats Network of Protected Areas for Threatened Amphibians (WNPATA) to SDB (University of Delhi). The specific epithet cepfi is treated as a noun in the genitive case.

  Sonali Garg and S.D. Biju. 2017.  Description of Four New Species of Burrowing Frogs in the Fejervarya rufescens complex (Dicroglossidae) with notes on Morphological Affinities of Fejervarya Species in the Western Ghats. 
Zootaxa. 4277(4); 451–490.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4277.4.1


 S K. Kiran, V. S. Anoop, K. C. Sivakumar, Raghunathan Dinesh, J. P. Mano, Deuti Kaushik and George Sanil. 2017. An Additional Record of Fejervarya manoharani Garg and Biju from the Western Ghats with A Description of Its Complete Mitochondrial Genome. Zootaxa. 4277(4); 491–502.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4277.4.2